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Unfccc Agreements

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The international climate regime, which includes the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and all related activities of these agreements, has largely failed due to the lack of political will of the governments of developed countries as parties to the convention that depend on the DSP. The UNFCCC was originally conceived as a framework convention and therefore had no objectives or timetables. Under pressure from the United States and other parties that were unwilling to take concerted action, it took a whole decade, from 1992 until the Rio Convention came into force. Right now, the United States is not yet gone. Commentators such as Tompkins and Amundsen (2008) conclude that the UNFCCC`s ability to advance national measures to combat climate change is limited and has not inspired its member countries. However, this is not quite the case, as the weakening of the market has been implemented significantly through the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol – emissions trading, joint implementation and clean development mechanism. The Emissions Trading Scheme was adopted by the EU, but it was not very popular. Implementation of the Emissions Trading Scheme in New Zealand began in mid-2010, but many countries that anticipated that they would apply the Emissions Trading Scheme, including Japan, Korea and Australia, did not. Alongside the UNFCCC and its agreements, heads of state and government around the world have recently adopted the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Over the next 15 years, countries should strive to end “all forms of poverty, combat inequality and combat climate change, while ensuring that no one is left behind” (United Nations, 2016a, b). The 2030 agenda contains 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets in the “three dimensions of sustainable development: economics, social and environmental” (United Nations, 2016a,b).

Although the SDGs are not formally linked to the UNFCCC, they are inextricably linked (Leong, 2015). Understanding this relationship is essential to have a global vision of the role of the United Nations in developing a climate change governance structure. This international organization has served as a major intergovernmental platform for countries to discuss climate change and take action. By providing its members with a “forum of opinion to the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, another body and other committees” (United Nations, 2015a, b), the United Nations has been able to become a mechanism for governments to discuss climate change and find areas of agreement for a common solution, in accordance with the intention of the UNFCCC and the agreements reached in this framework. However, in order to combat climate change, it is necessary to harmonize the results sought by the energy sector, which are responsible for more than two-thirds of global greenhouse gas emissions, and the results set out in the global climate agenda. This process has been phased in by the IEA and IRENA in recent years. As part of the Cancun Agreements, developed and developing countries submitted mitigation plans to the UNFCCC. [39] [40] These plans are developed as part of the Bali Action Plan. On the one hand, Objective 13: to take urgent action to combat climate change and its effects, That “the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the main intergovernmental international forum for negotiating the global response to climate change” (United Nations, 2016a, b) and that it is necessary to “implement the commitment made by the parties of industrialized countries to jointly mobilize $100 billion a year by 2020 from all The sources. Developing countries, as part of effective action on climate change and transparency in the implementation and full implementation of the Green Climate Fund by its capitalization, as quickly as possible” (United Nations, 2016a, b).